Natural Disasters in the New York City Area: Pilot Studies on HAZUS and Other Earthquake Loss Methodologies
Shari Salisbury and Montree Polyium
MCEER Information Service
The following sources provide an overview of HAZUS, the GIS-based earthquake
loss methodology which was designed as a nationally applicable standardized
methodology for estimating potential earthquake losses on a regional basis:
- Eguchi, Ronald T.; et al. "Real-time loss estimation as an emergency
response decision support system: the early post-earthquake damage
assessment tool (EPEDAT)." In Earthquake Spectra, vol. 13 Iss.
4, pages 815-832; Nov. 1997.
- This paper describes the development, operation and
application of the first real-time loss estimation system, which
integrates real-time earthquake source data, improved loss estimation,
Geographic Information Systems, and satellite-based monitoring systems,
to be used by an emergency services organization.
- King, Stephanie A. and Anne S. Kiremidjian. "Curee/Kajima Methodologies for
Evaluating the Socio-Economic Consequences of Large Earthquakes." In Proceedings of the 4th Japan-United States Workshop on Urban Earthquake Hazard
Reduction; Osaka, Japan, January 17-19, 1995. [Institute of Social Safety
Science, Tokyo], 1995, pages 203-205.
- This loss estimation project involves the development and implementation
of a geographic information system (GIS) based earthquake damage and loss
estimation methodology. The methodology is comprised of several analysis
modules, developed jointly by researchers from Curee and Kajima, that are
integrated through the GIS platform. An overview of the project is
presented in this paper, with emphasis on the utility of this research, as
well as other related research, for urban earthquake hazard reduction.
- Kircher, Charles A. "Mitigation of Earthquake Loss: What's It
Worth?" In Proceedings of the 6th Japan-United States Workshop on Urban Earthquake
Hazard Reduction; Kobe, Japan, January 12-14, 1999. Ohnishi, Kazuyoshi and
Maki, Norio, eds. Institute of Social Safety Science, Tokyo, 1999, pages
- This paper describes building-specific applications of
the standardized earthquake loss estimation methodology (HAZUS)
developed by the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) for the
US Federal Emergency Management Agency, and discusses how such
applications can be used to judge the benefits of earthquake loss
- Nishenko, Stuart, Claire Drury, and Jeff Milheizler. "Recent FEMA
Activities in Earthquake Risk Analysis and Mitigation." In Wind and
Seismic Effects: Proceedings of the 30th Joint Meeting of the US-Japan
Cooperative Program in Natural Resources; Panel on Wind and Seismic Effects;
[Gaithersburg, MD, May 12-15, 1998]. Raufaste, Noel J, ed. National
Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 1998, pages
- HAZUS related research and outreach activities are
summarized in this paper, as well as plans for the development and
release of wind and flood loss estimation modules.
- Whitman, Robert V. and Henry J. Lagorio. "FEMA-NIBS Methodology for
Earthquake Loss Estimation." Publisher and place of publication
- This paper provides a brief overview of the FEMA-NIBS
earthquake loss estimation methodology and is intended to help local,
regional, and state officials contemplating an earthquake loss study.
NOTE: All information sources noted above can be obtained through MCEER Information Service.
Pilot and Implementation Studies:
The following sources provide more specific details about the pilot and
implementation studies of HAZUS.
Anagnos, T.; et al. "Initial problems and successes in implementing the
HAZUS loss estimation methodology through the United States." In Earthquake
Engineering Research Inst.: (Oakland, California); Proceedings, Sixth
U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering [computer file], 9 pages;
Anagnos, T. Lawson, R S. P. Schneider and C. Drury. "Initial Problems and Successes in Implementing the
HAZUS Loss Estimation Methodology and Throughout the United States."
Davidson, Rachel. Indirect Assessment of the Earthquake Vulnerability of a
City's Physical Infrastructure." In Earthquake Engineering: Proceedings
[of the] Eighth Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering; Vancouver, BC,
Canada, June 13-16, 1999. Canadian Association for Earthquake Engineering,
Vancouver, BC, Canada, 1999, pages 183-188.
This paper introduces a new methodology that is being
developed to compare the earthquake vulnerability of the physical
infrastructure (buildings, bridges, pipelines) in different cities
worldwide. This indirect approach identifies the characteristics of a city's
historical development that generally lead to low vulnerability (for
example, early adoption of a seismic building code), and defines scalar
indicators to represent them.
D'Ayala, Dina; et al. "Earthquake loss estimation for Europe's historic
town centres." In Earthquake Spectra, vol. 13 Iss. 4, pages 773-793;
To support decision-making on upgrading strategies of
historic city centres, loss estimation techniques are needed, suitable for
application to masonry buildings. This paper describes the development and
application of such techniques to a case study in the Alfama District of
Lisbon. Cost-benefit analysis, considering only structural costs, indicates
that the return on the investment would be considerable.
"Disaster Resistant Communities: Final Report on Evansville-Henderson
Workshop to Develop a Model Disaster Community Program, April 15-16, 1997,
The workshop's objectives were to: demonstrate how HAZUS
can be used to access community risk to earthquakes, and eventually floods
and hurricanes; demonstrate the benefits of mitigation; develop a community
based mitigation strategy and implementation plan to reduce the
vulnerability of Evansville and Henderson to natural disasters. This report
outlines the findings and recommendations of five working groups that
addressed the key elements of a disaster resistant community program:
education and public outreach, existing and new development, community land
use, and business vulnerability reduction.
Drury, Claire. "HAZUS® 99 Estimated Annualized Earthquake
Losses for the United States" Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency
Management Agency (FEMA), 2000 [http://www.fema.gov/pdf/FEMA366.pdf].
Based on loss estimation generated by HAZUS, the study
assesses and illustrates the level of seismic risk for various geographical
units in the U.S. The study is intended for policy makers, practitioners,
and researchers in public and private sectors who have roles in assessing
risk and in formulating plans for responding to and recovering from actual
"Evansville, In-Henderson, KY Pilot Project." In CUSEC Journal,
volume 4, number 1, Summer 1997, pages 5-8.
Hasenberg, Carol S. and Franz N. Rad. Lessons Learned in a Level-Two HAZUS
Analysis for Buildings and Lifelines in the Portland, Oregon, Metropolitan
Region." In Optimizing Post-Earthquake Lifeline System Reliability.
King, S. A. and C. Rojahn. "A comparison of earthquake damage and loss
estimation methodologies." In Pergamon, Elsevier Science Ltd.: ([Oxford,
England]); Eleventh World Conference on Earthquake Engineering [Proceedings];
This paper describes the two different earthquake loss
methodologies that were implemented for a Magnitude 7.5 scenario event in
Salt Lake County, Utah, and the resulting damage and loss estimates for Salt
O'Rourke, Michael. "Estimation of Post-Earthquake Water System
O'Rourke, M J. "Estimation of Earthquake Loss for Transportation &
This paper describes HAZUS, a recently developed
Earthquake Loss Estimation tool. HAZUS is designed to produce loss estimates
for use by state, regional, and local governments in planning for earthquake
loss mitigation, emergency preparedness, as well as response and recovery. A
brief review of the transportation and utility lifeline modules in HAZUS is
Rojahn, Christopher; et al. "Earthquake damage and loss estimation
methodology and data for Salt Lake County, Utah (ATC-36)"
Methodology has been developed and/or updated for: (1)
estimation of damage due to ground shaking; (2) estimation of damage due to
collateral loss causes such as fault rupture, ground failure, inundation,
and fire following earthquake; (3) estimation of time to restore damaged
facilities to pre-earthquake usability; and (4) estimation of deaths and
injuries. In addition, an electronic inventory of approximately 200,000
structures (buildings and lifeline systems) within Salt Lake County has been
developed. The data and methodology have been developed for implementation
in a geographic information system (GIS) application, or in a non-GIS
software application, such as relational database management system or
Shinozuka, Masanobu, Stephanie E. Chang, Ronald T. Eguchi , Daniel P.Abrams,
Howard H M. Hwang, and Adam Rose. "Advances in Earthquake Loss
Estimation and Application to Memphis, Tennessee." In Earthquake
Spectra, Vol. 13, No. 4, November 1997, pages 739-758.
This paper discusses the Loss Assessment of Memphis
Buildings (LAMB) and the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division (MLGW)
projects with emphasis on methodological advances that were made in
earthquake loss estimation. The final section discusses the significance of
these developments, potential applications, and areas for further research.
Wang, Yumei. "Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Oregon." In Optimizing
Post-Earthquake Lifeline System Reliability.
This paper presents the first statewide quantitative
seismic risk assessment using GIS based HAZUS 97. Expected ground motions,
building damage, and social and economic losses were estimated for: 1) a
magnitude 8.5 Cascadia subduction zone earthquake off the coast of Oregon;
and 2) statewide probabilistic ground motions for a 10 percent probability
of exceedance in 50 years, which is the basis of the seismic design levels
in the building code. The analyses were conducted using geographic
information system (GIS) based HAZUS 97 software. Risk management strategies
that help stimulate and prioritize mitigation activities are reviewed.
NOTE: All information sources noted above can be obtained through MCEER Information Service.