The New York City Consortium for Earthquake Loss Mitigation (NYCEM) lftlogolvl2


Natural Disasters in the New York City Area: Pilot Studies on HAZUS and Other Earthquake Loss Methodologies

Annotated Bibliography
Shari Salisbury and Montree Polyium
MCEER Information Service


The following sources provide an overview of HAZUS, the GIS-based earthquake loss methodology which was designed as a nationally applicable standardized methodology for estimating potential earthquake losses on a regional basis:

  • Eguchi, Ronald T.; et al. "Real-time loss estimation as an emergency response decision support system: the early post-earthquake damage assessment tool (EPEDAT)." In Earthquake Spectra, vol. 13 Iss. 4, pages 815-832; Nov. 1997.
    • This paper describes the development, operation and application of the first real-time loss estimation system, which integrates real-time earthquake source data, improved loss estimation, Geographic Information Systems, and satellite-based monitoring systems, to be used by an emergency services organization. 

  • King, Stephanie A. and Anne S. Kiremidjian. "Curee/Kajima Methodologies for Evaluating the Socio-Economic Consequences of Large Earthquakes." In Proceedings of the 4th Japan-United States Workshop on Urban Earthquake Hazard Reduction; Osaka, Japan, January 17-19, 1995. [Institute of Social Safety Science, Tokyo], 1995, pages 203-205. 
    • This loss estimation project involves the development and implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) based earthquake damage and loss estimation methodology. The methodology is comprised of several analysis modules, developed jointly by researchers from Curee and Kajima, that are integrated through the GIS platform. An overview of the project is presented in this paper, with emphasis on the utility of this research, as well as other related research, for urban earthquake hazard reduction.
  • Kircher, Charles A. "Mitigation of Earthquake Loss: What's It Worth?" In Proceedings of the 6th Japan-United States Workshop on Urban Earthquake Hazard Reduction; Kobe, Japan, January 12-14, 1999. Ohnishi, Kazuyoshi and Maki, Norio, eds. Institute of Social Safety Science, Tokyo, 1999, pages 156-159. 
    • This paper describes building-specific applications of the standardized earthquake loss estimation methodology (HAZUS) developed by the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) for the US Federal Emergency Management Agency, and discusses how such applications can be used to judge the benefits of earthquake loss mitigation schemes.
  • Nishenko, Stuart, Claire Drury, and Jeff Milheizler. "Recent FEMA Activities in Earthquake Risk Analysis and Mitigation." In Wind and Seismic Effects: Proceedings of the 30th Joint Meeting of the US-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources; Panel on Wind and Seismic Effects; [Gaithersburg, MD, May 12-15, 1998]. Raufaste, Noel J, ed. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 1998, pages 300-305. 
    • HAZUS related research and outreach activities are summarized in this paper, as well as plans for the development and release of wind and flood loss estimation modules.
  • Whitman, Robert V. and Henry J. Lagorio. "FEMA-NIBS Methodology for Earthquake Loss Estimation." Publisher and place of publication unknown, 1997.
    • This paper provides a brief overview of the FEMA-NIBS earthquake loss estimation methodology and is intended to help local, regional, and state officials contemplating an earthquake loss study.


NOTE: All information sources noted above can be obtained through MCEER Information Service.

Pilot and Implementation Studies:

The following sources provide more specific details about the pilot and implementation studies of HAZUS. 


  • Anagnos, T.; et al. "Initial problems and successes in implementing the HAZUS loss estimation methodology through the United States." In Earthquake Engineering Research Inst.: (Oakland, California); Proceedings, Sixth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering [computer file], 9 pages; 1998.

    • This paper discusses issues that have been encountered during the first five months of methodology implementation.

  • Anagnos, T. Lawson, R S. P. Schneider and C. Drury. "Initial Problems and Successes in Implementing the HAZUS Loss Estimation Methodology and Throughout the United States." 

    • This paper discusses issues that have been encountered during the first five months of HAZUS implementation.

  • Davidson, Rachel. Indirect Assessment of the Earthquake Vulnerability of a City's Physical Infrastructure." In Earthquake Engineering: Proceedings [of the] Eighth Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering; Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 13-16, 1999. Canadian Association for Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 1999, pages 183-188. 

    • This paper introduces a new methodology that is being developed to compare the earthquake vulnerability of the physical infrastructure (buildings, bridges, pipelines) in different cities worldwide. This indirect approach identifies the characteristics of a city's historical development that generally lead to low vulnerability (for example, early adoption of a seismic building code), and defines scalar indicators to represent them.

  • D'Ayala, Dina; et al. "Earthquake loss estimation for Europe's historic town centres." In Earthquake Spectra, vol. 13 Iss. 4, pages 773-793; Nov. 1997.

    • To support decision-making on upgrading strategies of historic city centres, loss estimation techniques are needed, suitable for application to masonry buildings. This paper describes the development and application of such techniques to a case study in the Alfama District of Lisbon. Cost-benefit analysis, considering only structural costs, indicates that the return on the investment would be considerable.

  • "Disaster Resistant Communities: Final Report on Evansville-Henderson Workshop to Develop a Model Disaster Community Program, April 15-16, 1997, Evansville, Indiana." 

    • The workshop's objectives were to: demonstrate how HAZUS can be used to access community risk to earthquakes, and eventually floods and hurricanes; demonstrate the benefits of mitigation; develop a community based mitigation strategy and implementation plan to reduce the vulnerability of Evansville and Henderson to natural disasters. This report outlines the findings and recommendations of five working groups that addressed the key elements of a disaster resistant community program: education and public outreach, existing and new development, community land use, and business vulnerability reduction.

  • Drury, Claire. "HAZUS 99 Estimated Annualized Earthquake Losses for the United States" Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 2000 [].

    • Based on loss estimation generated by HAZUS, the study assesses and illustrates the level of seismic risk for various geographical units in the U.S. The study is intended for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers in public and private sectors who have roles in assessing risk and in formulating plans for responding to and recovering from actual disasters.

  • "Evansville, In-Henderson, KY Pilot Project." In CUSEC Journal, volume 4, number 1, Summer 1997, pages 5-8.

    • This article describes a pilot project conducted to test and further refine the CUSEC Disaster Resistant Community Model.

  • Hasenberg, Carol S. and Franz N. Rad. Lessons Learned in a Level-Two HAZUS Analysis for Buildings and Lifelines in the Portland, Oregon, Metropolitan Region." In Optimizing Post-Earthquake Lifeline System Reliability

    • This study reports the results of a level-two HAZUS analysis conducted using augmented data for the Portland, Oregon metropolitan region.

  • King, S. A. and C. Rojahn. "A comparison of earthquake damage and loss estimation methodologies." In Pergamon, Elsevier Science Ltd.: ([Oxford, England]); Eleventh World Conference on Earthquake Engineering [Proceedings]; 1996. 

    • This paper describes the two different earthquake loss methodologies that were implemented for a Magnitude 7.5 scenario event in Salt Lake County, Utah, and the resulting damage and loss estimates for Salt Lake County.

  • O'Rourke, Michael. "Estimation of Post-Earthquake Water System Serviceability." 

    • Current procedures for estimating post-earthquake serviceability of a water distribution system using the HAZUS methodology are reviewed and illustrated.

  • O'Rourke, M J. "Estimation of Earthquake Loss for Transportation & Utility Lifelines." 

    • This paper describes HAZUS, a recently developed Earthquake Loss Estimation tool. HAZUS is designed to produce loss estimates for use by state, regional, and local governments in planning for earthquake loss mitigation, emergency preparedness, as well as response and recovery. A brief review of the transportation and utility lifeline modules in HAZUS is presented.

  • Rojahn, Christopher; et al. "Earthquake damage and loss estimation methodology and data for Salt Lake County, Utah (ATC-36)" 

    • Methodology has been developed and/or updated for: (1) estimation of damage due to ground shaking; (2) estimation of damage due to collateral loss causes such as fault rupture, ground failure, inundation, and fire following earthquake; (3) estimation of time to restore damaged facilities to pre-earthquake usability; and (4) estimation of deaths and injuries. In addition, an electronic inventory of approximately 200,000 structures (buildings and lifeline systems) within Salt Lake County has been developed. The data and methodology have been developed for implementation in a geographic information system (GIS) application, or in a non-GIS software application, such as relational database management system or spreadsheet.

  • Shinozuka, Masanobu, Stephanie E. Chang, Ronald T. Eguchi , Daniel P.Abrams, Howard H M.  Hwang, and Adam Rose. "Advances in Earthquake Loss Estimation and Application to Memphis, Tennessee." In Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 13, No. 4, November 1997, pages 739-758. 

    • This paper discusses the Loss Assessment of Memphis Buildings (LAMB) and the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division (MLGW) projects with emphasis on methodological advances that were made in earthquake loss estimation. The final section discusses the significance of these developments, potential applications, and areas for further research.

  • Wang, Yumei. "Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Oregon." In Optimizing Post-Earthquake Lifeline System Reliability. 

    • This paper presents the first statewide quantitative seismic risk assessment using GIS based HAZUS 97. Expected ground motions, building damage, and social and economic losses were estimated for: 1) a magnitude 8.5 Cascadia subduction zone earthquake off the coast of Oregon; and 2) statewide probabilistic ground motions for a 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, which is the basis of the seismic design levels in the building code. The analyses were conducted using geographic information system (GIS) based HAZUS 97 software. Risk management strategies that help stimulate and prioritize mitigation activities are reviewed.


NOTE: All information sources noted above can be obtained through MCEER Information Service.

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